The eye is a visual organ that is very sensitive and acts as an important part of the body.  Due to its sensitivity, it is prone to infection or damages from dust particles very easily. This infection or dust particles can be solved with a temporary issue. If left unnoticed or uncared for, it leads to various other severe complications. In this article, we are going to explore some of the common eye defects & synonyms names of eye diseases and also explore symptoms of eye problems.

Eye anatomy and its functions

A complex organ that contains many functional parts. Hygiene practices will help to prevent complications.
Eye anatomy | Image source

Cornea & Optic nerve

The cornea is present in the front outer layer of the eye and its main function is refracting light that enters into the eye. The optic nerve is the second cranial nerve and it is located at the backside of the eye and from the retina. Moreover, it will transmit visual information to the brain.

Iris and Pupil

Iris is a colored part of the eye and it is composed of smooth muscles. The pupil appears in black and it is located at the center part of the eye. Moreover, it is surrounded by iris smooth muscles. When the light is entered through the pupil, the iris will regular the amount of light that is entering into the eye. Normally, the iris will be relaxed in bright light whereas it is contracted in the dim light.

Tear duct, Lens, and Retina

The tears duct is located in the inner corner of each eye. The lacrimal gland will be secreted from the tears gland from the sides and across the surface of the eye. It helps to clear the debris and tears will help to lubricate the cornea. In addition, it prevents the dryness of the eyes. The lens is composed of flexible and transparent tissues which are located at the backside of the iris and pupil of the eye. The lens helps to focus the light rays in your retina. The retina will help to sense the light. Moreover, this will create the electric impulses which have sent via the optic nerves to the brain. Normally, the retina will send the images that are seen to the brain.

Common Eye Diseases

There are many reasons to get eye diseases. Various reasons include genetic defects, environmental factors, congenital, injury or trauma to the eye, overdosage of medication, etc. Common symptoms of eye problems are blurred vision, headache, halos around light, sight problem, etc. Sometimes, eye symptoms will start with eye nausea, headache, eye pain, so many people will not notice the problem. First and foremost you should go to the eye doctor because this will help to discover the hidden problem. Make a regular habit of doing annual or six months once eye check-up. Definitely, this will help you to prevent further complications. The following are the common eye problems that we are facing in day to day life.

Refractive Errors:

The name of eye disease is refractive error, because light will not be focus properly and it will cause blurry vision.
Refractive error – Eye examination test

In this case, the eye will not be able to focus the light properly and it will cause blurry vision. Undoubtedly, it will affect all ages of people.

Types of Refractive Errors:

Types of refractive error are hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, presbyopia. They will not able to focus light properly.
Types of refractive errors | Image source

Refractive errors can be categorized into 4 types and they are:

  • Hyperopia/far-sightedness – Far away objects will be seen in blurred visions.
  • Myopia/near-sightedness–Close up objects will be seen in blurred vision
  • Astigmatism – Due to the irregular shape of the cornea, the eyes will be in blurred or distorted vision.
  • Presbyopia – Due to the aging, there will be a loss of elasticity in the eye lens, so there will be a blurred vision.

Causes & symptoms:

The causes will be due to genetic eye defects or changing the shape of the cornea or eye injury or aging in the lens. There is also a chance size of the length of the eyeball might be longer or shorter. The symptoms of the eye problem are blurry vision, eye strain, headache, etc.


You can wear the power glasses that suit you’re according to your eye power, contact lenses or surgery can able to cure the refractive errors.

Diabetic Retinopathy

People who are free with prediabetes will not have any symptoms of eye problems. But they should do an annual checkup.
Normal eye before affecting from diabetes | Image source

Diabetic retinopathy is a very dangerous eye disease and it is caused due to the damage of tiny blood vessels in the retina, which will cause blindness to diabetic patients.

The name of the eye disease is diabetic retinopathy. It will damage the blood vessels in the retina, which will cause blindness.
Diabetic retinopathy eye | Image source

Causes, symptoms & risk factors

Mostly it occurs in adults. In some cases, patients do not have any symptoms or they might have slight visionary problems at their early stage. Symptoms of the eye problem may like fluctuating vision, dark string, or floaters in the vision, difficulty in reading, distorted vision. Moreover, they will have partial loss of vision, and slowly it will lead to blindness.

Protein and other fluids in the eye will be leak and this will cause swelling in the retina. Moreover, this swelling will affect the macula and this will lead to severe vision loss. Sometimes scar tissues will develop and that will tends to retinal detachment. It has a chance to bleed inside the eye and there will be a growth in new blood vessels in the surface of the iris, which will lead to neovascular glaucoma.


For prevention, try to monitor the blood pressure and also check your eyes regularly. So early detection can cure this eye disease. Photocoagulation is a laser treatment that helps to stop the leakage of the fluid and blood in the eye. Many treatments like vitrectomy, injecting medicine in the eye, pan-retinal photocoagulation will help to cure of this eye defects.

Uveitis Eye Disease

Causing inflammation in the middle layer called uvea, hence the name of eye disease is uveitis.
Uveitis | Image source

Uvea is a part of the eye and it will supply blood to the retina. So, this eye disease will cause inflammation in the middle layer of the eye that is uvea, hence the name of the eye disease is uveitis. Furthermore, these parts contain more blood vessels and it is located at the middle layer of the eye. As a result, it tends to destroy the blood vessels and this will lead to loss of vision.

Types of Uveitis

Uveitis is categorized into 4 types. They are anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis and pan uveitis.

  • Anterior uveitis will affect the inside of the front of the eye and ciliary body. The other name of the eye diseases is iritis because it will affect the iris part mainly.
  • Intermediate uveitis will affect the middle part of the eye that is pars plana & also the gel in the center part of the eye called vitreous. The other name of the eye disease is iridocyclitis.
  • Posterior uveitis affects the back layer of the eye. The other name of eye disease is choroiditis because it will affect the blood vessels and the tissue of the choroid of the eye.
  • In pan-uveitis, the inflammation will affect almost all the layers in the eye.

Causes, symptoms & risk factors

There are several following reasons for the cause of this eye defect. Microbial infections, injury or trauma in the eye, autoimmune diseases, or exposure to the toxin in the eye are can cause uveitis. Symptoms of the eye problem are having light sensitivity, severe pain, floaters in the eye, blurred vision, eye redness, headaches. Complications like glaucoma, cataracts, scar tissue, detachment of the retina, macular edema, and loss of vision are considered as high-risk factors for uveitis.


Early detection helps to prevent serious eye defects. Treatment will be based on the specific types of uveitis caused in the eye. Moreover, the main goal is to reduce the pain and inflammation in the eye. Initially, your doctor will prescribe the corticosteroid medicine will be given in the form of eye drops. Otherwise, they will give tablets. If it does not work, they will inject the medicine in or around the eye, because this will help to reduce the inflammation.

Furthermore, the doctor will prescribe antibiotic medicine to control microbial infections in the eye. The doctor will also prescribe the immunosuppressive drugs which will help to prevent the body to respond with all the therapies. Mydriatic eye drops will help to dilate the pupil and this will heal the eyes inflammation.  For more critical cases, surgeries will be recommended for the patients.

Cataract Eye Disease

The Cloud formation in the lens is called a cataract and it is a very common problem existing across the world.
Cataract | Image source

The Cloud formation in the lens is called a cataract and it is a very common eye defect existing across the world. When light passes through the lens to the retina, the images for visualization will be processed in the eye. However, when a cataract affects your lens, the light will not able to pass through the retina. So as a result there will be a lack of clarity in the objects that are seen by the eye, eventually leading to loss of vision.

Types of Cataract:

Cataracts can be categorized into the following types, which are:

  • Nuclear cataracts – In this type, the cataract will affect the center of the lens. More importantly, the people who are all having near-sightedness will also get to be affected. The gradual development of a change in their vision happens to lead to a formation of the dense yellow apparition. Furthermore, this develops into a white misty layer over the eye completely blocking vision.
  • Cortical cataracts – In this type, the cataract will affect the edges of the lens. As a result, it will cause a wedge-shaped or streak formation in the outer edge of the cortex of the lens.
  • Posterior subcapsular cataracts – In this type, the cataract will affect the backside of the lens. Formation of the small opaque near the backside of the lens that is right in the light path and it will interfere with the reading of the vision. As a result, it will form the halos around light and the eyes will be blurred. This type will be faster than other types of cataracts.
  • Congenital cataracts – Cataract will be developed during childhood itself. It might be genetically eye defects or eye trauma during pregnancy.
  • Secondary cataracts – This type of cataract is caused due to diseases like diabetes, glaucoma. Moreover over usage of steroid medications will also lead to the cataract.
  • Traumatic cataract- The cataract has chances to develop after the eye injury.  Moreover, this may occur immediately or it may also take a long time to get a cataract.
  • Radiation cataract – When the eye is exposed to the UV radiation for a longer time, the cataract will affect the eye. Otherwise, it can occur due to radiation therapy which is used during cancer treatment.

Causes, Symptoms & risk factors

Symptoms of cataract eye problems and associated conditions can occur due to aging, hereditary problem, birth defects. Moreover, it may be affected due to chronic diseases like diabetes, eye trauma or injuries, overexposure to UV radiation, over usage of steroid medicines. Symptoms of the eye problem are having clouded or blurred vision. In addition, they will have fading of colors, the sensitivity of the light, contact lens precipitation, double vision, halos around the light. Risk factors of cataracts are obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, increasing age, eye trauma, drinking too much alcohol, and smoking.


Early detection will help to prevent the complication of eye defects. Even children will get cataracts, so regular eye check-ups will help to prevent the cataract. To prevent the cataract, you can wear sunglasses coated with anti-glare coating, wearing eyeglasses, regular eye check-ups, etc. Surgery will help to replace the artificial lens by taking out the cloudy damaged lens. First, they will give anesthesia to numb the eyes. So that you will be awake during the operation, but you will be sedated. Another surgery method is phacoemulsification and it is done by ultrasound waves, where your lens and capsule front portion will be removed.

Aged people get blurred vision due to thinning of the macula & name of  disease is age-related macular degeneration.
Age related macular degeneration | Image source

This eye disease is more common in people having 60 years and above. The eye disease will cause blurred vision due to the thinning of the macula part in the eye and thus the name of eye disease is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macula is an oval-shaped area near the retina and in general, it helps to get clear straight line vision. So this eye defect can develop in one eye or as well as in both the eyes.

Types of AMD

AMD is categorized into two following types.

  • Dry macular degeneration – It is the most common type seen among 90 % of the older people. Moreover, this eye defect occurs due to the small yellow deposits in the macula, called drusen. The advanced stage will damage the retina and lead to lose the central vision or distort vision.
  • Wet macular degeneration – This eye defect is seen among 15 to 20 % of the people. In this state, there will be the development of abnormal growth of blood vessels under the macula and retina. Furthermore, these blood vessels tend to leak the fluid and blood into the retina. Eyes will get blind spots and also permanent loss of central vision.

Causes, symptoms & risk factors

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) main causes are aging, smoking, family history, and environmental factors. Symptoms of the eye problem are difficult in recognition of faces, blurry vision, and reduced central vision of both the eyes. Risk factors are more family hereditary reasons, smoking, race, overweight, cardiovascular diseases.


Early detection will help to prevent the complications of the eye problem. There is no proper treatment available for AMD eye disease. Laser therapy with high energy laser light will help to destroy the abnormal blood vessels in the eye. Furthermore, this will help to stop bleeding from the eye and reduce the damage of the macula. For wet macular degeneration doctors will give the medication directly to your eyes. Moreover, this will help to stop the growth of new blood vessels in the eye thereby slowly returning the vision to normal. Next is photodynamic laser therapy and in this therapy, the doctor will inject a light-sensitive drug called Visudyne into the blood (arm area). As a result, it will trigger to damage the blood vessels during laser treatment. You can avoid AMD by avoiding smoking, wearing sunglasses, a healthy workout, moreover by having a balanced nutritious diet.

Glaucoma Eye Disease

Glaucoma is caused due to build-up of pressure and symptoms of eye will be pain, blurred vision, etc.
Glaucoma | Image source

One of the common eye diseases is glaucoma, where it will damage the optic nerve of the eye. The function of the optical nerve is to supply the visual information from the eyes to the brain. The build-up of high pressure in the eye is called intraocular pressure. As a result, it will damage the optical nerve and if the situation went worse, it will lead to blindness.

Types of Glaucoma

Glaucoma is categorized into the following types.

Open-angle glaucoma

Open-angle glaucoma is one of the most common eye defects seen among people. The other names of eye disease are Wide-angle glaucoma or chronic glaucoma. There will no proper symptoms for this type until the stage of vision loss. When the fluid is not able to drain properly and faster from the eye, then it will create the pressure in the optic nerve. Slowly this will lead to blindness.

Angle-closure glaucoma

Eye pressure in the eye builds up as the flow of aqueous humor fluid is tampered with. This is a very emergent situation, where you have to call the doctor immediately. Blindness will be a outcome if not treated immediately. The other name of the eye disease is narrow-angle glaucoma.

Secondary glaucoma

It occurs when various other miscellaneous conditions confer severe injury; such as eye tumors, cataracts, etc. Secondary glaucoma is classified into 4 types. They are neovascular glaucoma, pigmentation glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma.

  • Neovascular glaucoma occurs as a result of very high blood pressure or diabetes. New blood vessel formation makes the draining of fluid a severe problem.
  • Pigmentary glaucoma will occur when the color or pigment of the iris will flakes off. Furthermore, bits of pigments will block the drainage channel of the fluid in the eye.
  • Exfoliation glaucoma where the extra material will detach from the pars of the eye and that will tend to block from draining. The other name of the eye disease is pseudoexfoliation.
  • Uveitic glaucoma occurs as a result of inflammation of the uvea and which in turn, leads to blocking the fluid and increases the pressure in the eye.
Congenital glaucoma

Congenital glaucoma occurs in newborn babies. The excessive fluid cannot be able to drain the fluid out for those babies. Symptoms of an eye problem are having extra tears, very sensitive to light, eyes will be cloudy, and also extra larger than normal size.

Normal-tension glaucoma

It is a type of open-angle glaucoma, where the optic nerve will damage the normal pressure itself. The reason may be the sensitivity of the optic nerve. Otherwise, the lack of blood supply to the optic nerve tends to get normal-tension glaucoma.

Causes, symptoms & risk factors

The fluid called aqueous humor is an integral part of the eye. Furthermore, blocking the liquid will have altogether become the build-up and it will increase the intraocular pressure in the eye. This will tend to nerve damage and lose the sight in your eye. Many scenarios contribute to many complications. As a result, it will block drainage in the eye, over medication like corticosteroids, lack of blood flow to the optic nerve, high blood pressure, dilated eye drops. Besides, severe eye pain, blurred vision, nausea & vomiting, eye redness, and halos around the lights occur as a result. Risk factors of glaucoma include age, ethnicity, family history, eye problems, diabetes, and high risk of medical history.


Early detection will help to prevent further complications of this eye disease. Treatments like eye drops (beta-blockers, prostaglandins, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, etc.). Otherwise, laser treatment (peripheral iridotomy), oral medications, microsurgery are various types of treatment is will be recommended for glaucoma.

Amblyopia Eye Disease

Children will get affected by amblyopia and the symptoms of an eye, are tilting the head, squinting, etc.
Amblyopia | Image source

In this condition, usually will develop in one eye and this eye disease will affect more in children. Amblyopia occurs when the brain develops a tendency to fail in recognizing the sight visuals. As a result of problems arising in brain-eye coordination. So one of the eyes will become weak and the other will work normally. The other name of eye diseases is a lazy eye.

Causes, symptoms & risk factors

Muscle imbalance, family history, refractive errors, cataract, droopy eyelid, strabismus are the several causes of lazy eye. Symptoms of the eye disease are squinting of the eye, tilting the head, the eye will not work together, poor depth perception. Moreover, risk factors include premature babies, family history, and developmental disabilities.


Early detection helps to prevent further complications of eye problems. Doctors will recommend the following treatments according to the status of the eye defects. Treatments like eye drops, surgery, corrective eyewear, eye patches, Bangerter filter can help to fix the lazy eye.

Color blindness Eye Disease

Normally, the color blindness patient eyes will not able to distinguish the colors as a result of a problem occurring in the color sensing photopigments in the eye. Mostly they will struggle to find the difference between certain colors like red and green. However, there also other conditions called achromatopsia, wherein the affected individuals can only see in black and white tones. Mostly this eye defect is common among men’s and this eye problem will run in families.

Types of Color blindness

There are three major types of color blindness.

Name of the disease is color blindness. Symptoms of eye are difficult to differentiate between two colors.
Color blindness – 1 | Image source
  • The first type is where the person will have to be difficult to distinguish between red and green color.
  • The second type is where the person will have to be difficult to distinguish between yellow and blue color.
  • The third type is complete color blindness or monochromacy, where the person will have difficulty to see all complete colors.
Types of color blindness is difficult to differentiate colors between red- green, yellow, and blue, then monochromacy.
Color blindness – 2 | Image source

Causes, symptoms & risk factors

The main causes are damage to the optic nerve, cataract, aging, inherited disorder, exposure to over chemicals. Moreover, some medications that can change and alter the color vision. Symptoms of the eye problem are difficult to differentiate between red and green. In addition, there will be difficult to differentiate between yellow and blue, difficult to recognize all colors. Risk factors include family history, certain diseases like diabetes, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, etc.


There is no proper treatment for this color blindness. Moreover, wearing glasses and contact lenses may help to distinguish between the two colors, but it will not help to see all colors. If the medications cause eye defects, then the doctor will prefer alternative medicines. There is no cure for inherited problems. Using the specific techniques will make to move ahead of life easily.

Conjunctivitis Eye Disease

Conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva & the symptoms of eye are reddish or pink color appearance.
Conjunctivitis | Image source

In conjunctivitis, an infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva (transparent membrane) that lines up the eyelid and covers the white part of the eyeball. The other name of the eye disease is a pink eye because the eye will appear pink or reddish.

Causes, symptoms & risk factors

The causes like microbial infections include bacteria or viruses or fungal or parasites, chlorinated water, pollen allergies, chemicals will tend to get the eye disease very easily. Symptoms of the eye problem are pink- red-toned eyes, itchiness in eyes, excessive tears, discharge that build-up from the eyes during the night. Risk factors include the contact lens, respiratory infection, getting contact with the pink eye, exposure to microbial infections.


Early detection helps to prevent further complications of eye problems. By practicing good hygiene practices will help to avoid this conjunctivitis.  Mainly treatment will be based upon the exposure of the eye. The doctor will prefer the artificial tears for cleaning the eyelids with a wet cloth. Followed by applying warm or cold compressors to clean up the unwanted particles from your eye. Importantly, this should be followed properly until the last clear up.

To treat allergies, eye drops containing anti-inflammatory, antihistamines will be very effective and it will be preferred by the doctor. Antibiotic treatment will help to cure bacterial conjunctivitis. Most important is antibiotics will never work out for viral infections. Antiviral medications will help to relieve from viral infections. If you are using a contact lens, then stop it until it cures and consults the doctor when to wear it again.  

General precautionary steps to prevent Eye Diseases

  • Eye disease has a chance to transmit via hands also, so wash your hands regularly and properly before touch your eyes.
  • Don’t use old cosmetics for eye makeup, which is very dangerous. Try to not share your eye cosmetics with anyone, because the eye is a very sensitive organ.
  • Change the daily use towel and wash it regularly. Moreover, use separate hand clothes to avoid further complications.
  • People working in the heavy metal industries, laboratories, carpentry works should wear their goggles to their eye for their safety.
  • If you having any furniture or scrap metalwork or drilling work in your home or business site, then don’t forget to wear goggles for the eye.
  • Follow proper precautionary steps for contact lens, because the transmission of eye disease for contact lens rate is higher.
  • Following the correct sitting, posture is good for the body and also helps to avoid eye strain. Don’t stare at your computer or laptop for continuous hours, take a break in-between your work.
  • When taking part in a celebrative event that involves flammable materials, kindly keep your eyes protected and cautious of the involved environment.
  • If you are not confident with the contact lens, then use glasses, because misuse of contact lens is like inviting the eye defects. Over time with science development, nowadays glasses are available with UV and light filters which is safer than a contact lens.
  • Always follow a healthy diet and good hygiene practices, eat immune rich foods. Try to live a stress-free life by doing regular exercises, yoga, and meditation which keeps your body fit and this will help to prevent diseases.

Editor’s note

This article covers an overall view and information on available eye-related disorders, diseases and treatments. To completely understand any eye-related information for medical purposes, kindly visit the nearest eye clinic or ophthalmologist for the most accurate and appropriate treatment and information. Try to follow general precautionary steps properly and regularly, because this will help to prevent severe eye problems.

If you feel any uncomfortable with your eye, then go and check immediately with the doctor. Because early detection of eye disease will help to prevent serious complications. For refractive errors patients, they can consult the doctor and take vitamins and supplements foods to improve their eyesight. Moreover, consuming vitamins, iron, folic acid, minerals will help to keep your eye healthier. This article will be more useful to know about the complexion of various types and complications of eye diseases so that you can keep aware of yourself.

FAQs regarding Eye Diseases

What is Uveitis?

Uvea is a part of the eye and it will supply blood to the retina. So, this eye disease will cause inflammation in the middle layer of the eye that is uvea. Hence the name of the eye disease is uveitis. Symptoms of an eye problem are blurred vision, headache, severe pain, light sensitivity, etc.

What is Amblyopia?

This condition usually will develop in one eye and this eye disease will affect more in children. It is used to develops when the brain fails out to recognize the sight visuals and also fails out of working together with the eye. So one of the eyes will become lazy or week eye and the other will work normally. The other name of eye diseases is a lazy eye. Symptoms of an eye problem are squinting, tilting the head, etc.

What is Conjunctivitis?

In conjunctivitis, an infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva (transparent membrane) that lines up the eyelid and covers the white part of the eyeball. The other name of the eye disease is a pink eye because the symptoms of eye problems are appearing in a pink or reddish color.

COVID-19 Update | Eye Diseases

In this pandemic situation, try to follow the social distancing which is very important to prevent the COVID-19 virus. If you are using any eye care products or eye cosmetics or contact lens then wash your hands properly before touching. Because this COVID- 19 viruses have more tendency to transmit to your eyes easily. If you are going to any specs shop, make sure that the shop sanitizes the trial frames and contact areas. They also should check everyone’s body temperature before entering the shop. It is one of the important CDC recommended rules that everyone should follow to prevent virus transmission.


The content published on this page is a compiled result of My Best Guide’s Research team. The parameters of the research and the content structure are devised by My Best Guide’s Research Team and it is not in any way related to being done by governmental bodies. This research has purely been done by a third party. Kindly contact at +91-7015583649 if you want to make desired changes in the contact information related to your organization.

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